More Than the Looking Glass: The Associations Between School-Based Recognitions and Student Self-Concept
Self-concept is related to student academic achievement and locus of control (Coleman et al., 1966), intrapersonal and interpersonal processes (Markus & Wurf, 1987), and many long-term outcomes, such as satisfaction with one’s job, marriage, and life in general (Mortimer et al., 1982). Although self-concept is fairly malleable in early adolescence, it becomes more stable and rigid in high school (Bachman, O’Malley, & Johnston, 1978; Protinsky & Farrier, 1980). While interventions targeting self-concept have generally been found to be successful (Hattie, 2014), the associations between specific school- based recognitions for achievement and student self-concept have yet to be investigated. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NCES, 1996), the following analysis investigated the associations between different school-based recognitions for achievement and students’ self-concept. In this study, a set of school- based recognition variables was identified and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses was used to build an ANCOVA with random effects model predicting student self-concept in the 10th grade while controlling for gender, race, socioeconomic status (SES), and prior self-concept (8th grade) scores. Results indicate support for the use of HLM statistical methods and the inclusion of the aforementioned covariates. However, none of the predictor variables from the identified set of school-based recognition variables were significantly related to self-concept when entered into the model. Implications for school psychology research and practice are presented within a multitiered systems of supports (MTSS) framework, including suggestions for the implementation of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS).