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Longitudinal relationship of low leisure satisfaction but not depressive symptoms with systemic low-grade inflammation in dementia caregivers.
- Author(s): von Känel, Roland;
- Mausbach, Brent T;
- Mills, Paul J;
- Dimsdale, Joel E;
- Patterson, Thomas L;
- Ancoli-Israel, Sonia;
- Ziegler, Michael G;
- Allison, Matthew;
- Chattillion, Elizabeth A;
- Grant, Igor
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttp://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/3/397
No data is associated with this publication.
ObjectivesThis study aimed to further elucidate the biobehavioral mechanisms linking dementia caregiving with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that both elevated depressive symptoms and a behavioral correlate of depression, low leisure satisfaction, are associated with systemic inflammation.
MethodWe studied 121 elderly Alzheimer's disease caregivers who underwent 4 annual assessments for depressive symptoms, leisure satisfaction, and circulating levels of inflammatory markers. We used mixed-regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic and health-relevant covariates to examine longitudinal relationships between constructs of interest.
ResultsThere were inverse relationships between total leisure satisfaction and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; p = .047), interleukin-8 (IL-8; p < .001), and interferon-γ (IFG; p = .020) but not with IL-6 (p = .21) and C-reactive protein (p = .65). Lower enjoyment from leisure activities was related to higher levels of TNF-α (p = .045), IL-8 (p < .001), and IFG (p = .002), whereas lower frequency of leisure activities was related only to higher IL-8 levels (p = .023). Depressive symptoms were not associated with any inflammatory marker (all p values > .17). Depressive symptoms did not mediate the relationship between leisure satisfaction and inflammation.
DiscussionLower satisfaction with leisure activities is related to higher low-grade systemic inflammation. This knowledge may provide a promising way of improving cardiovascular health in dementia caregivers through behavioral activation treatments targeting low leisure satisfaction.
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