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Horizontal animation deformity as unusual complication of neurotoxin modulation of the gummy smile

  • Author(s): Chen, Gang
  • Oranges, Carlo M
  • Giordano, Salvatore
  • Huang, Rulin
  • Wang, Wenjin
  • et al.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License
Abstract

Injections of botulinum toxin type A represent the most common nonsurgical cosmetic treatment worldwide. The authors report a case of dynamic horizontal wrinkling in the upper lip that appeared after botulinum toxin type A injections to treat gummy smile associated with nasal alar base reduction, in a 28-year-old woman. The anatomic features and pathogenic mechanism underlying this unusual complication are analyzed and discussed.

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