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Accelerated echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging in prostate cancer: a pilot validation of non-linear reconstruction using total variation and maximum entropy.

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The overlap of metabolites is a major limitation in one-dimensional (1D) spectral-based single-voxel MRS and multivoxel-based MRSI. By combining echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) with a two-dimensional (2D) J-resolved spectroscopic (JPRESS) sequence, 2D spectra can be recorded in multiple locations in a single slice of prostate using four-dimensional (4D) echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (EP-JRESI). The goal of the present work was to validate two different non-linear reconstruction methods independently using compressed sensing-based 4D EP-JRESI in prostate cancer (PCa): maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and total variation (TV). Twenty-two patients with PCa with a mean age of 63.8 years (range, 46-79 years) were investigated in this study. A 4D non-uniformly undersampled (NUS) EP-JRESI sequence was implemented on a Siemens 3-T MRI scanner. The NUS data were reconstructed using two non-linear reconstruction methods, namely MaxEnt and TV. Using both TV and MaxEnt reconstruction methods, the following observations were made in cancerous compared with non-cancerous locations: (i) higher mean (choline + creatine)/citrate metabolite ratios; (ii) increased levels of (choline + creatine)/spermine and (choline + creatine)/myo-inositol; and (iii) decreased levels of (choline + creatine)/(glutamine + glutamate). We have shown that it is possible to accelerate the 4D EP-JRESI sequence by four times and that the data can be reliably reconstructed using the TV and MaxEnt methods. The total acquisition duration was less than 13 min and we were able to detect and quantify several metabolites.

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