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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Multiple Modalities and Multiple Frames of Reference for Spatial Knowledge, Final Report

  • Author(s): Freundschuh, Scott M.
  • Taylor, Holly A.
  • et al.

This meeting of multi-disciplinary researchers (Santa Barbara, CA, February 1999) explored the integration and problems associated with multiple modalities and multiple frames of reference, as represented in spatial language and human decision making. Modality themes included learning environments via maps, navigation, and virtual navigation; tactile, auditory, and visual localization and navigation; and learning environments from spatial descriptions. Reference frames under consideration included relative, intrinsic, and absolute reference frames for describing locations; orientation-free vs. orientation-specific representations; heads-up and north-up maps in navigation systems; mixing gaze, route, and survey perspectives in descriptions; expressing differing modalities or frames through language; and cross-cultural differences in the use of reference frames. This report summarizes the discussions and plenary presentation, and presents a set of research questions for further investigation.

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