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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

  • Author(s): Akhavan-Hejazi, Seyed Hossein
  • Advisor(s): Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed
  • et al.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International Public License
Abstract

In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit’s charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider uncertainty from various elements, such as solar photovoltaic , electric vehicle chargers, and residential baseloads, in the form of discrete probability functions. In the last part of this thesis we address some other resources and concepts for enhancing the operation of power distribution and transmission systems. In particular, we proposed a new framework to determine the best sites, sizes, and optimal payment incentives under special contracts for committed-type DG projects to offset distribution network investment costs. In this framework, the aim is to allocate DGs such that the profit gained by the distribution company is maximized while each DG unit’s individual profit is also taken into account to assure that private DG investment remains economical.

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