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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Gideon's Migration

  • Author(s): Eagly, Ingrid V.
  • et al.

For the past fifty years, immigration law has resisted integration ofGideon v. Wainwright’s legacy of appointed counsel for the poor. Today, however, this resistance has given way toGideon’s migration. At the level of everyday practice, criminal defense attorneys appointed pursuant to Gideon now advise clients on the immigration consequences of convictions, negotiate“immigration safe” plea bargains, defend clients charged with immigration crimes, and, in some model programs, even represent criminal defendants in immigration court. A formal right to appointed counsel in immigration proceedings has yet to be established, but proposals grounded in the constitution, statutes, and expanded government funding are gaining momentum.From the perspective of criminal defense, the changing role of Gideon-appointed counsel raises questions about the breadth and depth of immigration assistance that should developunder the defense umbrella.

From the perspective of immigration legal services, the potential importation of aGideon-inspired right to counsel requires consideration of the appropriate scope and design for an immigration defender system. This Essay does not attempt to resolve these challenging questions, but rather provides a framework for further reflection grounded in lessons learned from the criminal system’s implementation ofGideon.

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