A Material Point Method for Simulating Frictional Contact with Diverse Materials
- Author(s): Han, Xuchen
- Advisor(s): Teran, Joseph M
- et al.
We present an extension to the Material Point Method (MPM) for simulating elastic objects with various co-dimensions like hair (1D), thin shells (2D), and volumetric objects (3D). We simulate thin shells with frictional contact using a combination of MPM and subdivision finite elements. The shell kinematics are assumed to follow a continuum shell model which is decomposed into a Kirchhoff-Love motion that rotates the mid-surface normals followed by shearing and compression/extension of the material along the mid-surface normal. We use this decomposition to design an elastoplastic constitutive model to resolve frictional contact by decoupling resistance to contact and shearing from the bending resistance components of stress. We show that by resolving frictional contact with a continuum approach, our hybrid Lagrangian/Eulerian approach is capable of simulating challenging shell contact scenarios with hundreds of thousands to millions of degrees of freedom. Furthermore our technique naturally couples with other traditional MPM methods for simulating granular materials. Without the need for collision detection or resolution, our method runs in a few minutes per frame in these high resolution examples. For the simulation of hair and volumetric elastic objects, we utilize a Lagrangian mesh for internal force computation and an Eulerian mesh for self collision as well as coupling with external materials. While the updated Lagrangian discretization where the Eulerian grid degrees of freedom are used to take variations of the potential energy is effective in simulating thin shells, its frictional contact response strategy does not generalize to volumetric objects. Therefore, we develop a hybrid approach that retains Lagrangian degrees of freedom while still allowing for natural coupling with other materials simulated with traditional MPM. We demonstrate the efficacy of our technique with examples that involve elastic soft tissues coupled with kinematic skeletons, extreme deformation, and coupling with multiple elastoplastic materials. Our approach also naturally allows for two-way rigid body coupling.