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A mouse model for chronic intermittent electronic cigarette exposure exhibits nicotine pharmacokinetics resembling human vapers.

  • Author(s): Shao, Xuesi M
  • Lopez, Briana
  • Nathan, David
  • Wilson, Julian
  • Bankole, Emmanuel
  • Tumoyan, Hayk
  • Munoz, Alexandra
  • Espinoza-Derout, Jorge
  • Hasan, Kamrul M
  • Chang, Scarlett
  • Du, Christina
  • Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P
  • Lutfy, Kabirullah
  • Friedman, Theodore C
  • et al.
Abstract

Electronic cigarettes (E-cig) use is increasing rapidly, particularly among youths. Animal models for E-cig exposure with pharmacokinetics resembling human E-cig users are lacking. We developed an E-cig aerosol exposure system for rodents and a chronic intermittent delivery method that simulates E-cig users who vape episodically during wakefulness and abstain during sleep. Mice were exposed to E-cig in a programmed schedule at very low, low, medium, or high doses defined by duration of each puff, number of puffs per delivery episode and frequency of episodes in the dark phase of a 12/12-h circadian cycle for 9 consecutive days. The plasma nicotine/cotinine levels and their time courses were determined using LC/MS-MS. We assessed the body weight, food intake and locomotor activity of Apolipoprotein E null (ApoE-/-) mice exposed to chronic intermittent E-cig aerosol. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels were positively correlated with exposure doses. Nicotine and cotinine levels showed a circadian variation as they increased with time up to the maximum nicotine level of 21.8 ± 7.1 ng/mL during the daily intermittent E-cig exposure in the 12-h dark phase and then declined during the light phase when there was no E-cig delivery. Chronic E-cig exposure to ApoE-/- mice decreased body weight, food intake and increased locomotion. Our rodent E-cig exposure system and chronic intermittent exposure method yield clinically relevant nicotine pharmacokinetics associated with behavioral and metabolic changes. The methodologies are essential tools for in vivo studies of the health impacts of E-cig exposure on CNS, cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic systems, metabolism and carcinogenesis.

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