A consensus definition for lamellar macular hole
Background: A consensus on an optical coherence tomography (OCT) definition of lamellar macular hole (LMH) and similar conditions is needed. Methods: The panel reviewed relevant peer-reviewed literature to reach a consensus on LMH definition and to differentiate LMH from other similar conditions. Results: The panel reached a consensus on the definition of 3 clinical entities: LMH, epiretinal membrane (ERM) foveoschisis and macular pseudohole (MPH). LMH definition is based on 3 mandatory criteria and 3 optional anatomical features. The 3 mandatory criteria are the presence of irregular foveal contour, the presence of a foveal cavity with undermined edges, and the apparent loss of foveal tissue. Optional anatomical features include the presence of epiretinal proliferation, the presence of a foveal bump and the disruption of the ellipsoid line. ERM foveoschisis definition is based on 2 mandatory criteria: the presence of ERM and the presence of schisis at the level of Henle’s fiber layer. Three optional anatomical features can also be present: the presence of microcystoid spaces in the inner nuclear layer (INL), an increase of retinal thickness, and the presence of retinal wrinkling. MPH definition is based on 3 mandatory criteria and 2 optional anatomical features. Mandatory criteria include the presence of a foveal sparing ERM, the presence of a steepened foveal profile and an increased central retinal thickness. Optional anatomical features are the presence of microcystoid spaces in the INL and a normal retinal thickness. Conclusions: The use of the proposed definitions may provide uniform language for clinicians and future research.