Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UCLA Previously Published Works bannerUCLA

Race and sex differences in HDL peroxide content among American adults with and without type 2 diabetes



High-density lipoprotein (HDL) plays a critical role in protection against atherosclerosic and cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In addition to contributing to clearing excess vascular cholesterol, HDL particles exhibit antioxidative functions, helping to attenuate adverse effects of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. However, these beneficial properties can be undermined by oxidative stress, inflammation, and unhealthy lifestyles and diet, as well as influenced by race and sex. Thus, when assessing cardiovascular risk, it is important to consider multifactorial aspects of HDL, including antioxidant activity rather than just total amount and type of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) particles. Because prior research showed HDL peroxide content (HDLperox) can be inversely associated with normal anti-oxidant HDL activity, elevated HDLperox may serve as a bioindicator of HDL dysfunction.


In this study, data from a large national cohort of Americans was utilized to determine the impact of sex, race, and diabetes status on HDLperox in middle-aged and older adults. A previously developed cell-free fluorometric method was utilized to quantify HDLperox in serum depleted of apo-B containing lipoproteins.


In keeping with predictions, white men and diabetics exhibited HDLperox in the atypical upper range, suggestive of less functional HDL. White men had higher HDLperox levels than African American males (13.46 ± 6.10 vs. 10.88 ± 5.81, p < .001). There was also a significant main effect of type 2 diabetes (F(1,1901) = 14.9, p < .0001). Overall, African Americans evinced lower HDLperox levels, despite more obesity (10.3 ± 4.7 vs.11.81 ± 5.66 for Whites) suggesting that other aspects of lipid metabolism and psychosocial factors account for the higher prevalence of ASCVD in African Americans.


This research helps to provide a more comprehensive understanding of HDL function in a racially and metabolically diverse adult population. HDLperox content was significantly different in adults with type 2 diabetes, and distinctive in nondiabetic White males, and suggests other processes account for the higher prevalence of ASCVD among African Americans.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View