Multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging using a video-rate multi-tap charge modulation image sensor.
- Author(s): Sivakumar, Panneer Selvam
- Kagawa, Keiichiro
- Crouzet, Christian
- Choi, Bernard
- Yasutomi, Keita
- Kawahito, Shoji
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttps://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-27-18-26175
Multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging (MELSCI) systems based on high frame rate cameras are suitable for wide-field quantitative measurement of blood flow. However, high-speed camera-based MELSCI requires high power consumption, large memory, and high processing capability, which may lead to relatively large and expensive hardware. To realize a compact and cost-efficient MELSCI system, we discuss an application of the multi-tap CMOS image sensor originally designed for time-of-flight range imaging. This image sensor operated in the global shutter mode and every pixel was provided with multiple charge-storage diodes. Multiple images for different exposures were acquired simultaneously because exposure patterns were programmable to implement an arbitrary exposure duration for each tap. The frame rate was close to video frame rates (30 frames per second (fps)) regardless of the exposure pattern. The feasibility of the proposed method was verified by simulations that were performed with real speckle images captured by a high-speed camera at 40 kfps. Experiments with a four-tap CMOS image sensor demonstrated that a flow speed map was obtained at a moderate frame rate such as 35 fps for a moving ground glass plate and 45 fps for flowing Intralipose, which were linearly moved at speeds of 1-5 mm/s.