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Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic by a two-side fractional-order compartmental model.


Global efforts are focused on discussing effective measures for minimizing the impact of COVID-19 on global community. It is clear that the ongoing pandemic of this virus caused an immense threat to public health and economic development. Mathematical models with real data simulations are powerful tools that can identify key factors of pandemic and improve control or mitigation strategies. Compared with integer-order and left-hand side fractional models, two-side fractional models can better capture the state of pandemic spreading. In this paper, two-side fractional models are first proposed to qualitative and quantitative analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic. A basic framework are given for the prediction and analysis of infectious diseases by these types of models. By means of asymptotic stability analysis of disease-free and endemic equilibrium points, basic reproduction number R0 can be obtained, which is helpful for estimating the severity of an outbreak qualitatively. Sensitivity analysis of R0 is performed to identify and rank key epidemiological parameters. Based on the real data of the United States, numerical tests reveal that the model with both left-hand side fractional derivative and right-hand side fractional integral terms has a better forecast ability for the epidemic trend in the next ten days. Our extensive computational results also quantitatively reveal that non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as isolation, stay at home, strict control of social distancing, and rapid testing can play an important role in preventing the pandemic of the disease. Thus, the two-side fractional models are proposed in this paper can successfully capture the change rule of COVID-19, which provide a strong tool for understanding and analyzing the trend of the outbreak.

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