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Proteomic profiling of the monothiol glutaredoxin Grx3 reveals its global role in the regulation of iron dependent processes.

  • Author(s): Alkafeef, Selma S
  • Lane, Shelley
  • Yu, Clinton
  • Zhou, Tingting
  • Solis, Norma V
  • Filler, Scott G
  • Huang, Lan
  • Liu, Haoping
  • et al.
Abstract

Iron is an essential nutrient required as a cofactor for many biological processes. As a fungal commensal-pathogen of humans, Candida albicans encounters a range of bioavailable iron levels in the human host and maintains homeostasis with a conserved regulatory circuit. How C. albicans senses and responds to iron availability is unknown. In model yeasts, regulation of the iron homeostasis circuit requires monothiol glutaredoxins (Grxs), but their functions beyond the regulatory circuit are unclear. Here, we show Grx3 is required for virulence and growth on low iron for C. albicans. To explore the global roles of Grx3, we applied a proteomic approach and performed in vivo cross-linked tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry. We identified a large number of Grx3 interacting proteins that function in diverse biological processes. This included Fra1 and Bol2/Fra2, which function with Grxs in intracellular iron trafficking in other organisms. Grx3 interacts with and regulates the activity of Sfu1 and Hap43, components of the C. albicans iron regulatory circuit. Unlike the regulatory circuit, which determines expression or repression of target genes in response to iron availability, Grx3 amplifies levels of gene expression or repression. Consistent with the proteomic data, the grx3 mutant is sensitive to heat shock, oxidative, nitrosative, and genotoxic stresses, and shows growth dependence on histidine, leucine, and tryptophan. We suggest Grx3 is a conserved global regulator of iron-dependent processes occurring within the cell.

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