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sp2 Carbon-Hydrogen Bond (C-H) Functionalization

  • Author(s): Yotphan, Sirilata
  • Advisor(s): Bergman, Robert G
  • et al.
Abstract

Abstract

sp2 Carbon-Hydrogen Bond (C-H) Functionalization

by

Sirilata Yotphan

Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry

University of California, Berkeley

Professor Robert G. Bergman, Chair

Chapter 1. A review of the Bergman/Ellman group literature on rhodium-catalyzed direct sp2 C-H bond functionalization reactions is presented. In addition, some well-known late transition-metal catalyzed sp2 C-H bond functionalization reactions are described. These synthetic methods have valuable applications for organic chemistry and enable access to a number of interesting organic compounds and derivatives. These examples highlight the importance of this type of transformation and provide the background from which the results described in Chapters 2-5 may be viewed.

Chapter 2. Bridgehead bicyclic unsaturated enamines were prepared by a tandem rhodium-catalyzed C-H bond activation/alkenylation/electrocyclization of alkyne-tethered unsaturated imines. These strained bicyclic enamines exhibit unique reactivity: for example, they lead to N-alkylated products upon treatment with alkylating reagents and undergo double bond isomerization to alleviate ring strain upon reduction.

Chapter 3. An efficient method is reported for the preparation of multicyclic pyridines and quinolines by a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H bond functionalization process. The method shows good scope for branched and unbranched alkyl substituents on the pyridine ring and at the R position of the tethered alkene group. Starting materials capable of undergoing olefin isomerization to provide terminal 1,1-disubstituted alkenes also proved to be effective substrates.

Chapter 4. A method for the direct arylation of benzotriazepines is reported, employing an aryl iodide as the coupling partner, copper iodide as the catalyst, and lithium tert-butoxide as the base. A variety of electron-rich, electron-poor, and sterically hindered aryl iodides are compatible with the reaction conditions. The arylation reaction can also be performed outside a glovebox in air without a significant decrease in yield. Furthermore, convenient microwave conditions for carrying out this transformation are reported.

Chapter 5. The reaction of isopropyl Grignard reagent and 3-bromoquinoline leads to formation of interesting 3,4-disubstituted quinoline products in significant yields. This transformation was extensively studied for 3-bromoquinoline as the substrate, isopropyl magnesium chloride as the nucleophile, and a Brønsted acid or 3-bromopropene as electrophiles. A brief survey of this transformation, identification of the reaction limitations, and a suggested mechanism are reported in this Chapter.

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