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Soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquids and Solutions.

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X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an electronic absorption technique for which the initial state is a deeply buried core level. The photon energies corresponding to such transitions are governed primarily by the binding energies of the initial state. Because the binding energies of core electrons vary significantly among atomic species, this makes XAS an element-selective spectroscopy. Proper interpretation of XA spectra can provide detailed information on the local chemical and geometric environment of the target atom. The introduction of liquid microjet and flow cell technologies into XAS experiments has enabled the general study of liquid samples. Liquids studied to date include water, alcohols, and solutions with relevance to biology and energy technology. This Review summarizes the experimental techniques employed in XAS studies of liquid samples and computational methods used for interpretation of the resulting spectra and summarizes salient experiments and results obtained in the XAS investigations of liquids.

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