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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Primary Language Instruction In California Continues To Decline


Two main instructional approaches have been used to educate English learners in California—English language development (ELD) together with academic instruction in the primary language (bilingual education), and ELD with or without Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE). Since the passage of Proposition 227 in June 1998, native language instruction in California’s classrooms has continued to decline.

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