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Parallel proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of successive stages of maize leaf development.

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We performed large-scale, quantitative analyses of the maize (Zea mays) leaf proteome and phosphoproteome at four developmental stages. Exploiting the developmental gradient of maize leaves, we analyzed protein and phosphoprotein abundance as maize leaves transition from proliferative cell division to differentiation to cell expansion and compared these developing zones to one another and the mature leaf blade. Comparison of the proteomes and phosphoproteomes suggests a key role for posttranslational regulation in developmental transitions. Analysis of proteins with cell wall- and hormone-related functions illustrates the utility of the data set and provides further insight into maize leaf development. We compare phosphorylation sites identified here to those previously identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. We also discuss instances where comparison of phosphorylated and unmodified peptides from a particular protein indicates tissue-specific phosphorylation. For example, comparison of unmodified and phosphorylated forms of PINFORMED1 (PIN1) suggests a tissue-specific difference in phosphorylation, which correlates with changes in PIN1 polarization in epidermal cells during development. Together, our data provide insights into regulatory processes underlying maize leaf development and provide a community resource cataloging the abundance and phosphorylation status of thousands of maize proteins at four leaf developmental stages.

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