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Photodetection in Hybrid Single-Layer Graphene/Fully Coherent Germanium Island Nanostructures Selectively Grown on Silicon Nanotip Patterns.

  • Author(s): Niu, Gang;
  • Capellini, Giovanni;
  • Lupina, Grzegorz;
  • Niermann, Tore;
  • Salvalaglio, Marco;
  • Marzegalli, Anna;
  • Schubert, Markus Andreas;
  • Zaumseil, Peter;
  • Krause, Hans-Michael;
  • Skibitzki, Oliver;
  • Lehmann, Michael;
  • Montalenti, Francesco;
  • Xie, Ya-Hong;
  • Schroeder, Thomas
  • et al.
Abstract

Dislocation networks are one of the most principle sources deteriorating the performances of devices based on lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxial systems. We demonstrate here a technique enabling fully coherent germanium (Ge) islands selectively grown on nanotip-patterned Si(001) substrates. The silicon (Si)-tip-patterned substrate, fabricated by complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible nanotechnology, features ∼50-nm-wide Si areas emerging from a SiO2 matrix and arranged in an ordered lattice. Molecular beam epitaxy growths result in Ge nanoislands with high selectivity and having homogeneous shape and size. The ∼850 °C growth temperature required for ensuring selective growth has been shown to lead to the formation of Ge islands of high crystalline quality without extensive Si intermixing (with 91 atom % Ge). Nanotip-patterned wafers result in geometric, kinetic-diffusion-barrier intermixing hindrance, confining the major intermixing to the pedestal region of Ge islands, where kinetic diffusion barriers are, however, high. Theoretical calculations suggest that the thin Si/Ge layer at the interface plays, nevertheless, a significant role in realizing our fully coherent Ge nanoislands free from extended defects especially dislocations. Single-layer graphene/Ge/Si-tip Schottky junctions were fabricated, and thanks to the absence of extended defects in Ge islands, they demonstrate high-performance photodetection characteristics with responsivity of ∼45 mA W(-1) and an Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼10(3).

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