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Paravalvular Leak Assessment: Challenges in Assessing Severity and Interventional Approaches.

  • Author(s): Fanous, Elias J
  • Mukku, Roy B
  • Dave, Pranali
  • Aksoy, Olcay
  • Yang, Eric H
  • Benharash, Peyman
  • Press, Marcella Calfon
  • Rabbani, Amir B
  • Aboulhosn, Jamil A
  • Rafique, Asim M
  • et al.
The data associated with this publication are within the manuscript.
Abstract

With increasing use of prosthetic valves to treat degenerative valvular heart disease (VHD) in an aging population, the incidence and adverse consequences of paravalvular leaks (PVL) are better recognized. The present work aims to provide a cohesive review of the available literature in order to better guide the evaluation and management of PVL.

Despite gains in operator experience and design innovation, significant PVL remains a significant complication that may present with congestive heart failure and/or hemolytic anemia. To date, clear consensus or guidelines on the evaluation and management of PVL remain lacking. Although the evolution of transcatheter valve therapies has had a tremendous impact on the management of patients with VHD, the limitations and complications of such techniques, including PVL, present further challenges. Incidence of PVL, graded as moderate or greater, ranges from 4 to 7.4% in surgical and transcatheter valve replacements, respectively. Improved imaging modalities and the advent of novel surgical and percutaneous therapies have undoubtedly yielded a better understanding of PVL including its anatomical location, mechanism, severity, and treatment options. Echocardiography, used in conjunction with cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance, provides essential details for diagnosis and management of PVL. Transcatheter intervention has become a favored approach in lieu of surgical intervention in select patients after previous surgical or percutaneous valve replacement. PVL treatment with vascular plugs, balloon post-dilation, and the valve-in-valve methods have shown technical success with promising clinical outcomes in appropriately selected patients.

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