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Household finished flooring and soil-transmitted helminth and Giardia infections among children in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: a prospective cohort study

  • Author(s): Benjamin-Chung, Jade
  • Crider, Yoshika S
  • Mertens, Andrew
  • Ercumen, Ayse
  • Pickering, Amy J
  • Lin, Audrie
  • Steinbaum, Lauren
  • Swarthout, Jenna
  • Rahman, Mahbubur
  • Parvez, Sarker M
  • Haque, Rashidul
  • Njenga, Sammy M
  • Kihara, Jimmy
  • Null, Clair
  • Luby, Stephen P
  • Colford, John M
  • Arnold, Benjamin F
  • et al.
Abstract

AbstractBackgroundSoil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Giardia duodenalis are responsible for a large burden of disease globally. In low-resource settings, household finished floors (e.g., concrete floors) may reduce transmission of STH and G. duodenalis.MethodsIn a prospective cohort of children nested within two randomised trials in rural Bangladesh and Kenya, we estimated associations between household finished flooring and STH and G. duodenalis prevalence. In 2015-2016, we collected stool samples from children aged 2-16 years in rural Bangladesh and Kenya. We detected STH infection using qPCR (Bangladesh N=2,800; Kenya N=3,094) and detected G. duodenalis using qPCR in Bangladesh (N=6,894) and ELISA in Kenya (N=8,899). We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) using log-linear models adjusted for potential confounders.FindingsAt enrolment, 10% of households in Bangladesh and 5% in Kenya had finished floors. In both countries, household finished flooring was associated with lower Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence (Bangladesh aPR: 0.33, 95% CI 0.14, 0.78; Kenya aPR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39, 0.98) and any STH (Bangladesh aPR: 0.73, 95% CI 0.52, 1.01; Kenya aPR: 0.57, 95% CI 0.37, 0.88). Household finished floors were also associated with lower Necator americanus prevalence in Bangladesh (aPR: 0.52, 95% CI 0.29, 0.94) and G. duodenalis prevalence in both countries (Bangladesh aPR: 0.78, 95% CI 0.64, 0.95; Kenya: aPR: 0.82, 95% CI 0.70, 0.97).InterpretationIn low-resource settings, living in households with finished floors over a two-year period was associated with lower prevalence of G. duodenalis and certain STH in children.FundingBill & Melinda Gates Foundation grant OPPGD759

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