Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC San Diego

UC San Diego Previously Published Works bannerUC San Diego

Effect of intravenous gadoxetate disodium and flip angle on hepatic proton density fat fraction estimation with six-echo, gradient-recalled-echo, magnitude-based MR imaging at 3T

Published Web Location
No data is associated with this publication.


The aim of the study was to determine in patients undergoing gadoxetate disodium (Gx)-enhanced MR exams whether proton density fat fraction (PDFF) estimation accuracy of magnitude-based multi-gradient-echo MRI (MRI-M) could be improved by using high flip angle (FA) on post-contrast images.

Materials and methods

Thirty-one adults with known or suspected hepatic steatosis undergoing 3T clinical Gx-enhanced liver MRI were enrolled prospectively. MR spectroscopy (MRS), the reference standard, was performed before Gx to measure MRS-PDFF. Low (10°)- and high (50°)-flip angle (FA) MRI-M sequences were acquired before and during the hepatobiliary phase after Gx administration; MRI-PDFF was estimated in the MRS-PDFF voxel location. Linear regression parameters (slope, intercept, average bias, R 2) were calculated for MRS-PDFF as a function of MRI-PDFF for each MRI-M sequence (pre-Gx low-FA, pre-Gx high-FA, post-Gx low-FA, post-Gx high-FA) for all patients and for patients with MRS-PDFF <10%. Regression parameters were compared (Bonferroni-adjusted bootstrap-based tests).


Three of the four MRI-M sequences (pre-Gx low-FA, post-Gx low-FA, post-Gx high-FA) provided relatively unbiased PDFF estimates overall and in the low-PDFF range, with regression slopes close to 1 and intercepts and biases close to zero. Pre-Gx high-FA MRI overestimated PDFF in proportion to MRS-PDFF, with slopes of 0.72 (overall) and 0.63 (low-PDFF range). Based on regression bias closest to 0, the post-Gx high-FA sequence was the most accurate overall and in the low-PDFF range. This sequence provided statistically significant improvements in at least two regression parameters compared to every other sequence.


In patients undergoing Gx-enhanced MR exams, PDFF estimation accuracy of MRI-M can be improved by using high-FA on post-contrast images.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Item not freely available? Link broken?
Report a problem accessing this item