On Several Fundamental Problems of Optimization, Estimation, and Scheduling in Wireless Communications
For both the conventional radio frequency and the comparably recent optical wireless communication systems, extensive effort from the academia had been made in improving the network spectrum efficiency and/or reducing the error rate. To achieve these goals, many fundamental challenges such as power efficient constellation design, nonlinear distortion mitigation, channel training design, network scheduling and etc. need to be properly addressed. In this dissertation, novel schemes are proposed accordingly to deal with specific problems falling in category of these challenges. Rigorous proofs and analyses are provided for each of our work to make a fair comparison with the corresponding peer works to clearly demonstrate the advantages.
The first part of this dissertation considers a multi-carrier optical wireless system employing intensity modulation (IM) and direct detection (DD). A block-wise constellation design is presented, which treats the DC-bias that conventionally used solely for biasing purpose as an information basis. Our scheme, we term it MSM-JDCM, takes advantage of the compactness of sphere packing in a higher dimensional space, and in turn power efficient constellations are obtained by solving an advanced convex optimization problem. Besides the significant power gains, the MSM-JDCM has many other merits such as being capable of mitigating nonlinear distortion by including a peak-to-power ratio (PAPR) constraint, minimizing inter-symbol-interference (ISI) caused by frequency-selective fading with a novel precoder designed and embedded, and further reducing the bit-error-rate (BER) by combining with an optimized labeling scheme.
The second part addresses several optimization problems in a multi-color visible light communication system, including power efficient constellation design, joint pre-equalizer and constellation design, and modeling of different structured channels with cross-talks. Our novel constellation design scheme, termed CSK-Advanced, is compared with the conventional decoupled system with the same spectrum efficiency to demonstrate the power efficiency. Crucial lighting requirements are included as optimization constraints. To control non-linear distortion, the optical peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) of LEDs can be individually constrained. With a SVD-based pre-equalizer designed and employed, our scheme can achieve lower BER than counterparts applying zero-forcing (ZF) or linear minimum-mean-squared-error (LMMSE) based post-equalizers. Besides, a binary switching algorithm (BSA) is applied to improve BER performance.
The third part looks into a problem of two-phase channel estimation in a relayed wireless network. The channel estimates in every phase are obtained by the linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE) method. Inaccurate estimate of the relay to destination (RtD) channel in phase 1 could affect estimate of the source to relay (StR) channel in phase 2, which is made erroneous. We first derive a close-form expression for the averaged Bayesian mean-square estimation error (ABMSE) for both phase estimates in terms of the length of source and relay training slots, based on which an iterative searching algorithm is then proposed that optimally allocates training slots to the two phases such that estimation errors are balanced. Analysis shows how the ABMSE of the StD channel estimation varies with the lengths of relay training and source training slots, the relay amplification gain, and the channel prior information respectively.
The last part deals with a transmission scheduling problem in a uplink multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless network. Code division multiple access (CDMA) is assumed as a multiple access scheme and pseudo-random codes are employed for different users. We consider a heavy traffic scenario, in which each user always has packets to transmit in the scheduled time slots. If the relay is scheduled for transmission together with users, then it operates in a full-duplex mode, where the packets previously collected from users are transmitted to the destination while new packets are being collected from users. A novel expression of throughput is first derived and then used to develop a scheduling algorithm to maximize the throughput. Our full-duplex scheduling is compared with a half-duplex scheduling, random access, and time division multiple access (TDMA), and simulation results illustrate its superiority. Throughput gains due to employment of both MIMO and CDMA are observed.