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Molecular mechanism of off-target effects in CRISPR-Cas9

  • Author(s): Ricci, Clarisse;
  • Chen, Janice;
  • Miao, Yinglong;
  • Jinek, Martin;
  • Doudna, Jennifer;
  • McCammon, Andrew;
  • Palermo, Giulia
  • et al.

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Abstract CRISPR-Cas9 is the state-of-the-art technology for editing and manipulating nucleic acids. However, the occurrence of off-target mutations can limit its applicability. Here, all-atom enhanced molecular dynamics (MD) simulations – using Gaussian accelerated MD (GaMD) – are used to decipher the mechanism of off-target binding at the molecular level. GaMD reveals that base pair mismatches in the target DNA at specific distal sites with respect to the Protospacer Adjacent Motif (PAM) induce an extended opening of the RNA:DNA heteroduplex, which leads to newly discovered interactions between the unwound nucleic acids and the protein counterpart. The conserved interactions between the target DNA strand and the L2 loop of the catalytic HNH domain constitute a “lock” effectively decreasing the conformational freedom of the HNH domain and its activation for cleavage. Remarkably, depending on their position at PAM distal sites, DNA mismatches leading to off-target cleavages are unable to “lock” the HNH domain, thereby identifying the ability to “lock” HNH as a key determinant. Consistently, off-target sequences hampering the catalysis have been shown to “trap” somehow the HNH domain in an inactive “conformational checkpoint” state (Dagdas et al. Sci Adv, 2017). As such, this mechanism identifies the molecular basis underlying off-target cleavages and contributes in clarifying a long-lasting open issue of the CRISPR-Cas9 function. It also poses the foundation for designing novel and more specific Cas9 variants, which could be obtained by magnifying the “locking” interactions between HNH and the target DNA in the presence of any incorrect off-target sequence, thus preventing undesired cleavages.

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