Bisphosphonate inhibits the expression of cyclin A2 at the transcriptional level in normal human oral keratinocytes
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3066
Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are the most widely used anti-resorptive agents in the treatment of bone-related diseases. N-BPs inhibit bone resorption by specifically targeting osteoclasts, bone-resorbing cells. However, soft tissue toxicity, such as oral or gastrointestinal (GI) ulcerations has frequently been reported in N-BP users, suggesting that N-BPs may also directly target cells other than osteoclasts. Previously, we reported that BPs inhibit proliferation without inducing the apoptosis of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOKs). However, the molecular mechanisms through which N-BPs inhibit the proliferation of NHOKs are not yet fully understood. In this study, we performed gene expression profiling in N-BP-treated NHOKs and identified cyclin A2 as one of the most commonly downregulated genes. When the NHOKs were treated with N-BPs, we found that the level of cyclin A2 was suppressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the protein level of cyclin A2 was also significantly lower in oral epithelial cells in N-BP-treated oral mucosal tissue constructs. Cyclin A2 promoter reporter assay revealed that N-BPs inhibited the luciferase activity, indicating that the inhibition of cyclin A2 expression occurs at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, N-BPs did not alter the expression of cyclin A2 in normal human oral fibroblasts (NHOFs), suggesting that the effect of N-BPs on cyclin A2 expression may be cell-type specific. Thus, the findings of our study demonstrate that the inhibition of NHOK proliferation by N-BPs is mediated, at least in part, by the suppression of cyclin A2 expression at the transcriptional level, which may explain the underlying mechanisms of soft tissue toxicity by N-BPs.