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Reliability of Semiautomated Kinetic Perimetry (SKP) and Goldmann Kinetic Perimetry in Children and Adults With Retinal Dystrophies



To investigate the precision of visual fields (VFs) from semiautomated kinetic perimetry (SKP) on Octopus 900 perimeters, for children and adults with inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs). Goldmann manual kinetic perimetry has long been used in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients, but SKP is becoming increasingly common. Octopus VFs (OVFs) and Goldmann VFs (GVFs) were both mapped on two occasions.


Nineteen females and 10 males with IRDs were tested on OVFs and GVFs, with two targets per test (V4e and one smaller target). Tests were performed in the same (randomized) order at two visits about 1 week apart. The VFs were digitized to derive isopter solid angles. Comparisons, within and between visits, were performed with paired t-tests and Bland-Altman plots.


Median age was 20 years (range, 7-70; 10 participants aged ≤17 years old). There were no significant differences in solid angles between OVFs and GVFs (P ≥ 0.06) or between the two visits' solid angles on either perimeter (P ≥ 0.30). Between-visit test-retest variability for GVFs and OVFs was similar (P ≥ 0.73), with median values of approximately 9% to 13%. Overall variability was lower for children than adults (medians of 7.5% and 12.8%, respectively).


Octopus SKP and Goldmann perimetry produced VFs of similar size and variability.

Translational relevance

Our study indicates that SKP provides a viable alternative to traditional Goldmann perimetry in clinical trials or care involving both children and adults with IRDs.

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