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Label-Free and Regenerative Electrochemical Microfluidic Biosensors for Continual Monitoring of Cell Secretomes.

  • Author(s): Shin, Su Ryon;
  • Kilic, Tugba;
  • Zhang, Yu Shrike;
  • Avci, Huseyin;
  • Hu, Ning;
  • Kim, Duckjin;
  • Branco, Cristina;
  • Aleman, Julio;
  • Massa, Solange;
  • Silvestri, Antonia;
  • Kang, Jian;
  • Desalvo, Anna;
  • Hussaini, Mohammed Abdullah;
  • Chae, Su-Kyoung;
  • Polini, Alessandro;
  • Bhise, Nupura;
  • Hussain, Mohammad Asif;
  • Lee, HeaYeon;
  • Dokmeci, Mehmet R;
  • Khademhosseini, Ali
  • et al.

Development of an efficient sensing platform capable of continual monitoring of biomarkers is needed to assess the functionality of the in vitro organoids and to evaluate their biological responses toward pharmaceutical compounds or chemical species over extended periods of time. Here, a novel label-free microfluidic electrochemical (EC) biosensor with a unique built-in on-chip regeneration capability for continual measurement of cell-secreted soluble biomarkers from an organoid culture in a fully automated manner without attenuating the sensor sensitivity is reported. The microfluidic EC biosensors are integrated with a human liver-on-a-chip platform for continual monitoring of the metabolic activity of the organoids by measuring the levels of secreted biomarkers for up to 7 d, where the metabolic activity of the organoids is altered by a systemically applied drug. The variations in the biomarker levels are successfully measured by the microfluidic regenerative EC biosensors and agree well with cellular viability and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses, validating the accuracy of the unique sensing platform. It is believed that this versatile and robust microfluidic EC biosensor that is capable of automated and continual detection of soluble biomarkers will find widespread use for long-term monitoring of human organoids during drug toxicity studies or efficacy assessments of in vitro platforms.

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