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A numerical study of early summer regional climate and weather over LSA-east. Part I: Model implementation and verification

  • Author(s): Zhang, D L
  • Zheng, W Z
  • Xue, Yongkang K
  • et al.

The Pennsylvania State University-NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) and a simplified simple biosphere (SSiB) scheme are modified and then coupled to study various regional climate and weather problems. These modifications include correcting the moisture and cloud hydrometeor fields to ensure the mass conservation; incorporating the effects of dissipative heating to ensure total energy conservation; decoupling soil and vegetation types in specifying various surface parameters; and eliminating the shortwave radiation reaching the surface at points where deep convection occurs. A 30-day integration of June 1998 over the Midwest states was used to examine the model's capability in capturing the observed wet regional climate and the passage of several mesoscale weather events. It is found that the coupled model reproduces the distribution and magnitude of monthly accumulated precipitation, the time series of area-integrated precipitation, surface pressures, and diurnal changes in surface temperatures, low-level winds and precipitation, as well as the evolution of precipitation systems across the central United States. In particular, the model reproduces well many daily weather events, including the distribution and intensity of low-level temperature and pressure perturbations and precipitation, even up to a month. The results suggest that the daily temperature, clouds, and precipitation events from the weekly to monthly scales, as well as their associated regional climate phenomena, could be reasonably simulated if the surface, boundary layer, radiation, and convective processes are realistically parameterized, and the large-scale forcing could be reasonably provided by general circulation models.

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