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Incidence and risk factors influencing the development of vancomycin nephrotoxicity in children.


To determine the incidence of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity in children and to examine potential risk factors for nephrotoxicity, including average serum trough concentrations ≥ 15 mg/L.

Patients ≥ 1 week old to ≤ 19 years with normal baseline serum creatinine values who received vancomycin for ≥ 48 hours between December 2007 and April 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Nephrotoxicity was defined as a serum creatinine increase of ≥ 0.5 mg/dL or ≥ 50% baseline increase over 2 days. Patients with average serum trough concentrations ≥ 15 mg/L were compared with a lower trough group.

Nephrotoxicity occurred in 14% of 167 patients. More patients who attained high average (≥ 15 mg/L) rather than low average (<15 mg/L) vancomycin troughs had nephrotoxicity (28% versus 7.3%, P = .0001). Using multivariable regression analysis, patients with high troughs and those receiving furosemide in the intensive care unit were more likely to have nephrotoxicity (OR, 3.27 [95% CI, 1.19 to 8.95], P = .021, and odds ratio, 9.45 [95% confidence interval, 3.44 to 26.00], P < .0001, respectively).

Renal function and serum troughs in children receiving vancomycin, especially those with targeted troughs of ≥ 15 mg/L, in intensive care, and receiving furosemide, should be closely monitored.

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