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Do ketone bodies mediate the anti-seizure effects of the ketogenic diet?

  • Author(s): Simeone, Timothy A
  • Simeone, Kristina A
  • Stafstrom, Carl E
  • Rho, Jong M
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/29325899/
No data is associated with this publication.
Abstract

Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of the high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) remain unclear, a long-standing question has been whether ketone bodies (i.e., β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone), either alone or in combination, contribute mechanistically. The traditional belief has been that while ketone bodies reflect enhanced fatty acid oxidation and a general shift toward intermediary metabolism, they are not likely to be the key mediators of the KD's clinical effects, as blood levels of β-hydroxybutyrate do not correlate consistently with improved seizure control. Against this unresolved backdrop, new data support ketone bodies as having anti-seizure actions. Specifically, β-hydroxybutyrate has been shown to interact with multiple novel molecular targets such as histone deacetylases, hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors on immune cells, and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Clearly, as a diet-based therapy is expected to render a broad array of biochemical, molecular, and cellular changes, no single mechanism can explain how the KD works. Specific metabolic substrates or enzymes are only a few of many important factors influenced by the KD that can collectively influence brain hyperexcitability and hypersynchrony. This review summarizes recent novel experimental findings supporting the anti-seizure and neuroprotective properties of ketone bodies.

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