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Time among the taunted: The moderating effect of time perspective on bullying victimization and self-esteem in adolescents.

  • Author(s): Moon, Julia;
  • Mello, Zena R
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2021.05.002
No data is associated with this publication.
Creative Commons 'BY-NC-ND' version 4.0 license
Abstract

Introduction

Bullying victimization is detrimental to psychosocial wellbeing in adolescents. It is paramount that factors that mitigate the harmful effects of bullying victimization be identified. Time perspective may be a potential mechanism. Thus, we examined the moderating effect of time perspective on the associations between traditional and cyberbullying victimization (being bullied in person and on electronic media) and self-esteem in adolescents. Time perspective refers to feelings and thoughts about the past, present, and future. We examined time feelings (positive and negative feelings about the time periods), time frequency (frequency of thoughts about the time periods), and time relation (the perceived relationship among the time periods).

Methods

Two cross-sectional survey studies were conducted. Study 1 examined traditional bullying victimization in 721 American adolescents (Mage = 15.84, SD = 1.20; 57% female). Study 2 examined cyberbullying victimization in 190 American adolescents (Mage = 15.83, SD = 1.28; 59% female).

Results

Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated that time perspective dimensions moderated the associations between high levels of traditional and cyberbullying victimization and self-esteem in adolescents who (a) had strong positive and weak negative feelings about the present and future (time feelings); (b) thought a little about the past (time frequency); or (c) perceived all time periods as interrelated (time relation).

Conclusions

Time perspective dimensions (feelings, frequency, and relation) moderated the associations between traditional and cyberbullying victimization and self-esteem in adolescents. Findings have implications for bullying victimization prevention efforts. Findings also demonstrate the multidimensional and multi-temporal qualities of time perspective.

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