Model Based Optimal Control, Estimation, and Validation of Lithium-Ion Batteries
This dissertation focuses on developing and experimentally validating model based control techniques to enhance the operation of lithium ion batteries, safely. An overview of the contributions to address the challenges that arise are provided below.
Chapter 1: This chapter provides an introduction to battery fundamentals, models, and
control and estimation techniques. Additionally, it provides motivation for the contributions of this dissertation.
Chapter 2: This chapter examines reference governor (RG) methods for satisfying state
constraints in Li-ion batteries. Mathematically, these constraints are formulated from a first principles electrochemical model. Consequently, the constraints explicitly model specific degradation mechanisms, such as lithium plating, lithium depletion, and overheating. This contrasts with the present paradigm of limiting measured voltage, current, and/or temperature. The critical challenges, however, are that (i) the electrochemical states evolve according to a system of nonlinear partial differential equations, and (ii) the states are not physically measurable. Assuming available state and parameter estimates, this chapter develops RGs for electrochemical battery models. The results demonstrate how electrochemical model state information can be utilized to ensure safe operation, while simultaneously enhancing energy capacity, power, and charge speeds in Li-ion batteries.
Chapter 3: Complex multi-partial differential equation (PDE) electrochemical battery
models are characterized by parameters that are often difficult to measure or identify. This parametric uncertainty influences the state estimates of electrochemical model-based observers for applications such as state-of-charge (SOC) estimation. This chapter develops two sensitivity-based interval observers that map bounded parameter uncertainty to state estimation intervals, within the context of electrochemical PDE models and SOC estimation. Theoretically, this chapter extends the notion of interval observers to PDE models using a sensitivity-based approach. Practically, this chapter quantifies the sensitivity of battery state estimates to parameter variations, enabling robust battery management schemes. The effectiveness of the proposed sensitivity-based interval observers is verified via a numerical study for the range of uncertain parameters.
Chapter 4: This chapter seeks to derive insight on battery charging control using electrochemistry models. Directly using full order complex multi-partial differential equation (PDE) electrochemical battery models is difficult and sometimes impossible to implement. This chapter develops an approach for obtaining optimal charge control schemes, while ensuring safety through constraint satisfaction. An optimal charge control problem is mathematically formulated via a coupled reduced order electrochemical-thermal model which conserves key electrochemical and thermal state information. The Legendre-Gauss-Radau (LGR) pseudo-spectral method with adaptive multi-mesh-interval collocation is employed to solve the resulting nonlinear multi-state optimal control problem. Minimum time charge protocols are analyzed in detail subject to solid and electrolyte phase concentration constraints, as well as temperature constraints. The optimization scheme is examined using different input current bounds, and an insight on battery design for fast charging is provided. Experimental results are provided to compare the tradeoffs between an electrochemical-thermal model based optimal charge protocol and a traditional charge protocol.
Chapter 5: Fast and safe charging protocols are crucial for enhancing the practicality of
batteries, especially for mobile applications such as smartphones and electric vehicles. This chapter proposes an innovative approach to devising optimally health-conscious fast-safe charge protocols. A multi-objective optimal control problem is mathematically formulated via a coupled electro-thermal-aging battery model, where electrical and aging sub-models depend upon the core temperature captured by a two-state thermal sub-model. The Legendre-Gauss-Radau (LGR) pseudo-spectral method with adaptive multi-mesh-interval collocation is employed to solve the resulting highly nonlinear six-state optimal control problem. Charge time and health degradation are therefore optimally traded off, subject to both electrical and thermal constraints. Minimum-time, minimum-aging, and balanced charge scenarios are examined in detail. Sensitivities to the upper voltage bound, ambient temperature, and cooling convection resistance are investigated as well. Experimental results are provided to compare the tradeoffs between a balanced and traditional charge protocol.
Chapter 6: This chapter provides concluding remarks on the findings of this dissertation
and a discussion of future work.