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Adenosine-associated delivery systems.

  • Author(s): Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi
  • Annabi, Nasim
  • Tamayol, Ali
  • Oklu, Rahmi
  • Ghanem, Amyl
  • Khademhosseini, Ali
  • et al.
Abstract

Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosine's extremely short half-life in human blood (<10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this article, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted.

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