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The Effects of Video Self-Modeling on the Decoding Skills of Children At Risk for Reading Disabilities


Ten first grade students, participating in a Tier II response to intervention (RTI) reading program received an intervention of video self modeling to improve decoding skills and sight word recognition. The students were video recorded blending and segmenting decodable words, and reading sight words taken directly from their curriculum instruction. Individual videos were recorded and edited to show students successfully and accurately decoding words and practicing sight word recognition. Each movie was two minutes or less and included 5 decoding segments and 5 new sight words. Decodable words were selected for each student based upon identified decoding deficits assessed weekly. Sight words were selected based upon the upcoming set of words in each student's RTI instruction lesson. Viewing of the video self-modeling movies occurred 4 times per week prior to RTI instruction. Data were collected twice per week using curriculum-based measures that included decodable and sight words printed in black and white on index cards and the Dibels Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) assessment. A single subject multiple baseline across participants design was used. Pre-and post-test measures included the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment, the Basic Phonics Skills Test, the Systematic Instruction in Phoneme Awareness, Phonics, and Sight Words Assessment and the standardized Woodcock-Johnson III subtests: Word Attack and Letter Word Identification. Results indicated an increase in decoding skills and sight word recognition for all participants. A two-week post-test maintenance assessment showed that 70% of the participants retained their highest decoding and sight word recognition skill levels or further increased their scores. The remaining 30% scored lower than their highest score but still remained above baseline. All 10 students improved their NWF scores from baseline to maintenance indicating a generalization of skills. Treatment integrity and inter-observer reliability were established with an equal rating of 98%. Social validity was recorded on video through an interview process that addressed both student and teacher feelings about the use of video self-modeling to improve reading skills and reading in general. Results from the study offer promise of an early response, specific intervention that may reach particular students who struggle with Tier II reading instruction.

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