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Serum apolipoproteins and apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses: a hypothesis-generating prospective study of cardiovascular events in T1D


APOB, APOC3, and APOE and apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses (ADLSs; based on qualitative apolipoprotein complement) have been associated with dyslipidemia and CVD. Our main objective was to define associations of serum apolipoproteins and ADLSs with "any CVD" and "major atherosclerotic cardiovascular events" (MACEs) in a prospective study of T1D. Serum apolipoproteins and ADLSs (14 biomarkers in total) were measured in sera (obtained between 1997 and 2000) from a subset (n = 465) of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications cohort. Prospective associations of "any CVD" (myocardial infarction, stroke, confirmed angina, silent myocardial infarction, revascularization, or congestive heart failure) and MACEs (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke), over 5,943 and 6,180 patient-years follow-up, respectively, were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models that were unadjusted and adjusted for risk factors. During 15 years of follow-up, 50 "any CVD" events and 24 MACEs occurred. Nominally significant positive univariate associations with "any CVD" were APOB, APOC3 and its subfractions [heparin precipitate, heparin-soluble (HS)], and ADLS-defined Lp-B. In adjusted analyses, APOC3-HS remained nominally significant. Nominally significant positive univariate associations with MACEs were APOC3 and its subfractions and Lp-B:C; those with total APOC3 and APOC3-HS persisted in adjusted analyses. However, these associations did not reach significance after adjusting for multiple testing. There were no significant associations of APOA1, APOA2, APOE, or other ADLSs with either "any CVD" or MACEs. These hypothesis-generating data suggest that total serum APOC3 and APOC3 in HDL are potentially important predictive biomarkers for any CVD and MACEs in adults with T1D.

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