Predicting critical transitions in ENSO models. Part II: Spatially dependent models
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00240.1
The present paper is the second part of a two-part study on empirical modeling and prediction of climate variability. This paper deals with spatially distributed data, as opposed to the univariate data of Part I. The choice of a basis for effective data compression becomes of the essence. In many applications, it is the set of spatial empirical orthogonal functions that provides the uncorrelated time series of principal components (PCs) used in the learning set. In this paper, the basis of the learning set is obtained instead by applying multichannel singular-spectrum analysis to climatic time series and using the leading spatiotemporal PCs to construct a reduced stochastic model. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by predicting the behavior of the Jin-Neelin-Ghil (JNG) hybrid seasonally forced coupled ocean-atmosphere model of El Niño- Southern Oscillation. The JNG model produces spatially distributed and weakly nonstationary time series to which the model reduction and prediction methodology is applied. Critical transitions in the hybrid periodically forced coupled model are successfully predicted on time scales that are substantially longer than the duration of the learning sample.