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LRP1 assembles unique co-receptor systems to initiate cell signaling in response to tissue-type plasminogen activator and myelin-associated glycoprotein.

  • Author(s): Mantuano, Elisabetta;
  • Lam, Michael S;
  • Gonias, Steven L
  • et al.

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In addition to functioning as an activator of fibrinolysis, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) interacts with neurons and regulates multiple aspects of neuronal cell physiology. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which tPA initiates cell signaling in PC12 and N2a neuron-like cells. We demonstrate that enzymatically active and inactive tPA (EI-tPA) activate ERK1/2 in a biphasic manner. Rapid ERK1/2 activation is dependent on LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1). In the second phase, ERK1/2 is activated by tPA independently of LRP1. The length of the LRP1-dependent phase varied inversely with the tPA concentration. Rapid ERK1/2 activation in response to EI-tPA and activated α2-macroglobulin (α2M*) required the NMDA receptor and Trk receptors, which assemble with LRP1 into a single pathway. Assembly of this signaling system may have been facilitated by the bifunctional adapter protein, PSD-95, which associated with LRP1 selectively in cells treated with EI-tPA or α2M*. Myelin-associated glycoprotein binds to LRP1 with high affinity but failed to induce phosphorylation of TrkA or ERK1/2. Instead, myelin-associated glycoprotein recruited p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) into a complex with LRP1 and activated RhoA. p75NTR was not recruited by other LRP1 ligands, including EI-tPA and α2M*. Lactoferrin functioned as an LRP1 signaling antagonist, inhibiting Trk receptor phosphorylation and ERK1/2 activation in response to EI-tPA. These results demonstrate that LRP1-initiated cell signaling is ligand-dependent. Proteins that activate cell signaling by binding to LRP1 assemble different co-receptor systems. Ligand-specific co-receptor recruitment provides a mechanism by which one receptor, LRP1, may trigger different signaling responses.

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