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Optical coherence tomography-based consensus definition for lamellar macular hole.

  • Author(s): Hubschman, Jean Pierre
  • Govetto, Andrea
  • Spaide, Richard F
  • Schumann, Ricarda
  • Steel, David
  • Figueroa, Marta S
  • Sebag, Jerry
  • Gaudric, Alain
  • Staurenghi, Giovanni
  • Haritoglou, Christos
  • Kadonosono, Kazuaki
  • Thompson, John T
  • Chang, Stanley
  • Bottoni, Ferdinando
  • Tadayoni, Ramin
  • et al.


A consensus on an optical coherence tomography definition of lamellar macular hole (LMH) and similar conditions is needed.


The panel reviewed relevant peer-reviewed literature to reach an accord on LMH definition and to differentiate LMH from other similar conditions.


The panel reached a consensus on the definition of three clinical entities: LMH, epiretinal membrane (ERM) foveoschisis and macular pseudohole (MPH). LMH definition is based on three mandatory criteria and three optional anatomical features. The three mandatory criteria are the presence of irregular foveal contour, the presence of a foveal cavity with undermined edges and the apparent loss of foveal tissue. Optional anatomical features include the presence of epiretinal proliferation, the presence of a central foveal bump and the disruption of the ellipsoid zone. ERM foveoschisis definition is based on two mandatory criteria: the presence of ERM and the presence of schisis at the level of Henle's fibre layer. Three optional anatomical features can also be present: the presence of microcystoid spaces in the inner nuclear layer (INL), an increase of retinal thickness and the presence of retinal wrinkling. MPH definition is based on three mandatory criteria and two optional anatomical features. Mandatory criteria include the presence of a foveal sparing ERM, the presence of a steepened foveal profile and an increased central retinal thickness. Optional anatomical features are the presence of microcystoid spaces in the INL and a normal retinal thickness.


The use of the proposed definitions may provide uniform language for clinicians and future research.

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