UC San Diego
Luminescent tris(8-hydroxyquinolates) of bismuth(III).
- Author(s): Han, Pauline J
- Rheingold, Arnold L
- Trogler, William C
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24093446
Luminescent homoleptic bismuth(III) complexes have been synthesized by adding several functionalized 8-hydroxyquinolate ligands to bismuth(III) chloride in a 3:1 mole ratio in either ethanol or tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent. These complexes have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine their structures and photophysical properties. Reversible dimerization of the mononuclear tris(hydroxyquinolate) complexes was observed in solution and quantified using UV-vis spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra show a blue shift for the monomer compared with homoleptic aluminum(III) hydroxyquinolate compounds. Four dimeric compounds and one monomeric isomer were characterized structurally. The bismuth(III) centers in the dimers are bridged by two oxygen atoms from the substituted hydroxyquinolate ligands. The more sterically hindered quinolate complex, tris(2-(diethoxymethyl)-8-quinolinato)bismuth, crystallizes as a monomer. The complexes all exhibit low-lying absorption and emission spectral features attributable to transitions between the HOMO (π orbital localized on the quinolate phenoxide ring) and LUMO (π* orbital localized on the quinolate pyridyl ring). Excitation and emission spectra show a concentration dependence in solution that suggests that a monomer-dimer equilibrium occurs. Electronic structure DFT calculations support trends seen in the experimental results with a HOMO-LUMO gap of 2.156 eV calculated for the monomer that is significantly larger than those for the dimers (1.772 and 1.915 eV). The close face to face approach of two quinolate rings in the dimer destabilizes the uppermost occupied quinolate π orbitals, which reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap and results in longer wavelength absorption and emission spectral features than in the monomer form.