Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

Department of Statistics, UCLA

Department of Statistics Papers bannerUCLA

Simpson's Paradox: An Anatomy


This report discusses the reversal e ect known as Simpson's paradox from a causal- theoretic viewpoint. It analyzes the reasons why the e ect has been (and still is) considered paradoxical and why its resolution has been so late in coming. The re- port is extracted from a forthcoming book Causality [Pearl, 2000], and assumes some familiarity with causal diagrams and the do( ) (or set( )) notation (e.g., [Pearl, 1995]).

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View