Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

Depression and human immunodeficiency virus infection are risk factors for incident heart failure among veterans: Veterans Aging Cohort Study.

  • Author(s): White, Jessica R
  • Chang, Chung-Chou H
  • So-Armah, Kaku A
  • Stewart, Jesse C
  • Gupta, Samir K
  • Butt, Adeel A
  • Gibert, Cynthia L
  • Rimland, David
  • Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C
  • Leaf, David A
  • Bedimo, Roger J
  • Gottdiener, John S
  • Kop, Willem J
  • Gottlieb, Stephen S
  • Budoff, Matthew J
  • Khambaty, Tasneem
  • Tindle, Hilary A
  • Justice, Amy C
  • Freiberg, Matthew S
  • et al.

BACKGROUND:Both HIV and depression are associated with increased heart failure (HF) risk. Depression, a common comorbidity, may further increase the risk of HF among adults with HIV infection (HIV+). We assessed the association between HIV, depression, and incident HF. METHODS AND RESULTS:Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) participants free from cardiovascular disease at baseline (n=81 427: 26 908 HIV+, 54 519 without HIV [HIV-]) were categorized into 4 groups: HIV- without major depressive disorder (MDD) [reference], HIV- with MDD, HIV+ without MDD, and HIV+ with MDD. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from medical records were used to determine MDD and the primary outcome, HF. After 5.8 years of follow-up, HF rates per 1000 person-years were highest among HIV+ participants with MDD (9.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.20-10.6). In Cox proportional hazards models, HIV+ participants with MDD had a significantly higher risk of HF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.45-1.95) compared with HIV- participants without MDD. MDD was associated with HF in separate fully adjusted models for HIV- and HIV+ participants (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06-1.37; and adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.51, respectively). Among those with MDD, baseline antidepressant use was associated with lower risk of incident HF events (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.99). CONCLUSIONS:Our study is the first to suggest that MDD is an independent risk factor for HF in HIV+ adults. These results reinforce the importance of identifying and managing MDD among HIV+ patients. Future studies must clarify mechanisms linking HIV, MDD, antidepressants, and HF and identify interventions to reduce HF morbidity and mortality in those with both HIV and MDD.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
Current View