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An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO

  • Author(s): Rameau, J
  • Follette, KB
  • Pueyo, L
  • Marois, C
  • MacIntosh, B
  • Millar-Blanchaer, M
  • Wang, JJ
  • Vega, D
  • Doyon, R
  • Lafrenire, D
  • Nielsen, EL
  • Bailey, V
  • Chilcote, JK
  • Close, LM
  • Esposito, TM
  • Males, JR
  • Metchev, S
  • Morzinski, KM
  • Ruffio, JB
  • Wolff, SG
  • Ammons, SM
  • Barman, TS
  • Bulger, J
  • Cotten, T
  • Rosa, RJD
  • Duchene, G
  • Fitzgerald, MP
  • Goodsell, S
  • Graham, JR
  • Greenbaum, AZ
  • Hibon, P
  • Hung, LW
  • Ingraham, P
  • Kalas, P
  • Konopacky, Q
  • Larkin, JE
  • Maire, J
  • Marchis, F
  • Oppenheimer, R
  • Palmer, D
  • Patience, J
  • Perrin, MD
  • Poyneer, L
  • Rajan, A
  • Rantakyrö, FT
  • Marley, MS
  • Savransky, D
  • Schneider, AC
  • Sivaramakrishnan, A
  • Song, I
  • Soummer, R
  • Thomas, S
  • Wallace, JK
  • Ward-Duong, K
  • Wiktorowicz, S
  • et al.

We present H band spectroscopic and Hμ photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2σ level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A non-detection at the 5σ level of HD 100546 b in differential Hμ imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 ? 10-4 L o and for 1 R Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. This non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.

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