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A Multi-Omic Analysis for Low Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Suggests a Relationship between Diet, Metabolites, and Microbiota


The effect of microbiota composition and its health on bone tissue is a novel field for research. However, their associations with bone mineral density (BMD) have not been established in postmenopausal women. The present study investigates the relation of diet, the microbiota composition, and the serum metabolic profile in postmenopausal women with normal-BMD or with low-BMD. Ninety-two Mexican postmenopausal women were classified into normal-BMD (n = 34) and low-BMD (n = 58). The V4 hypervariable region was sequenced using the Miseq platform. Serum vitamin D was determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum concentrations of acyl-carnitines and amino acids were determined by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The low-BMD group had fewer observed species, higher abundance of γ-Proteobacteria, lower consumption of lycopene, and lower concentrations of leucine, valine, and tyrosine compared with the normal-BMD group. These amino acids correlated positively with the abundance of Bacteroides. Lycopene consumption positively correlated with Oscillospira and negatively correlated with Pantoea genus abundance. Finally, the intestinal microbiota of women with vitamin D deficiency was related to Erysipelotrichaceae and Veillonellaceae abundance compared to the vitamin D non-deficient group. Associations mediated by the gut microbiota between diet and circulating metabolites with low-BMD were identified.

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