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From Fully-Supervised, Single-Task to Scarcely-Supervised, Multi-Task Deep Learning for Medical Image Analysis


Image analysis based on machine learning has gained prominence with the advent of deep learning, particularly in medical imaging. To be effective in addressing challenging image analysis tasks, however, conventional deep neural networks require large corpora of annotated training data, which are unfortunately scarce in the medical domain, thus often rendering fully-supervised learning strategies ineffective.

This thesis devises for use in a variety of medical image analysis applications a series of novel deep learning methods, ranging from fully-supervised, single-task learning to scarcely-supervised, multi-task learning that makes efficient use of annotated training data. Specifically, its main contributions include (1) fully-supervised, single-task learning for the segmentation of pulmonary lobes from chest CT scans and the analysis of scoliosis from spine X-ray images; (2) supervised, single-task, domain-generalized pulmonary segmentation in chest X-ray images and retinal vasculature segmentation in fundoscopic images; (3) largely-unsupervised, multiple-task learning via deep generative modeling for the joint synthesis and classification of medical image data; and (4) partly-supervised, multiple-task learning for the combined segmentation and classification of chest and spine X-ray images.

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