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Temporal Associations Between Social Activity and Mood, Fatigue, and Pain in Older Adults With HIV: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

  • Author(s): Paolillo, Emily W
  • Tang, Bin
  • Depp, Colin A
  • Rooney, Alexandra S
  • Vaida, Florin
  • Kaufmann, Christopher N
  • Mausbach, Brent T
  • Moore, David J
  • Moore, Raeanne C
  • et al.

Published Web Location

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972192/
No data is associated with this publication.
Abstract

Background

Social isolation is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems, especially among older persons living with HIV (PLWH). Thus, there is a need to better understand real-time temporal associations between social activity and mood- and health-related factors in this population to inform possible future interventions.

Objective

This study aims to examine real-time relationships between social activity and mood, fatigue, and pain in a sample of older PLWH.

Methods

A total of 20 older PLWH, recruited from the University of California, San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program in 2016, completed smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys 5 times per day for 1 week. Participants reported their current social activity (alone vs not alone and number of social interactions) and levels of mood (sadness, happiness, and stress), fatigue, and pain. Mixed-effects regression models were used to analyze concurrent and lagged associations among social activity, mood, fatigue, and pain.

Results

Participants (mean age 58.8, SD 4.3 years) reported being alone 63% of the time, on average, (SD 31.5%) during waking hours. Being alone was related to lower concurrent happiness (beta=-.300; 95% CI -.525 to -.079; P=.008). In lagged analyses, social activity predicted higher levels of fatigue later in the day (beta=-1.089; 95% CI -1.780 to -0.396; P=.002), and higher pain levels predicted being alone in the morning with a reduced likelihood of being alone as the day progressed (odds ratio 0.945, 95% CI 0.901-0.992; P=.02).

Conclusions

The use of EMA elucidated a high rate of time spent alone among older PLWH. Promoting social activity despite the presence of pain or fatigue may improve happiness and psychological well-being in this population.

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