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Cellular antiseizure mechanisms of everolimus in pediatric tuberous sclerosis complex, cortical dysplasia, and non-mTOR-mediated etiologies.


The present study was designed to examine the potential cellular antiseizure mechanisms of everolimus, a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway blocker, in pediatric epilepsy cases. Cortical tissue samples obtained from pediatric patients (n = 11, ages 0.67-6.75 years) undergoing surgical resections for the treatment of their pharmacoresistant epilepsy were examined electrophysiologically in ex vivo slices. The cohort included mTOR-mediated pathologies (tuberous sclerosis complex [TSC] and severe cortical dysplasia [CD]) as well as non-mTOR-mediated pathologies (tumor and perinatal infarct). Bath application of everolimus (2 μm) had practically no effect on spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic activity. In contrast, long-term application of everolimus reduced spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic activity, burst discharges induced by blockade of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors, and epileptiform activity generated by 4-aminopyridine, a K+ channel blocker. The antiseizure effects were more pronounced in TSC and CD cases, whereas in non-mTOR-mediated pathologies, the effects were subtle at best. These results support further clinical trials of everolimus in mTOR pathway-mediated pathologies and emphasize that the effects require sustained exposure over time.

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