The components for a quantum computer based on surface state electrons on liquid helium
- Author(s): Naberhuis, Brian Patrick
- et al.
It has been proposed in literature that a quantum computer can be made utilizing the electronic states of electrons bound to the surface of liquid helium. One can model a single electron on the surface as a 1d hydrogenic atom, providing a set of quantum electronic states which are easily tunable, with an untuned energy gap of 0.488\,meV (̃120 GHz) between the ground state and the first excited state, and it is these two energy levels that are proposed as the 0 and 1 state of a qubit. To that end, three microfabricated devices are needed: a low temperature electron source of low energy electrons, a detector capable of detecting single electrons, and a microstructure capable of trapping and Stark shifting the energy levels of individual electrons in proximity close enough to perform multiple qubit operations. This dissertation contains a description of the devices microfabricated for these purposes. An electron source based on porous silicon was fabricated, tested, and proven to provide low energy electrons. Other more conventional techniques based on a thoriated tungsten filament were also explored. For electron detection, we have fabricated a transition edge superconducting microbolometer. Tests have shown it is capable of detecting a few eV of energy. For the microstructure, we fabricated a series of columns 200 nm in diameter, 1.5[mu]m in height, separated by 500 nm. For later tests, a microelectrode exposed through a 10[mu]m diameter hole in a ground plane was used. Initial experiments describing bolometer designs and electron confinement are discussed, as well as proposed microfabrication redesign to continue this work. Numerical time series computations of both single (NOT, PHASE) and two qubit (SWAP, [square root]SWAP, CNOT) gates are also presented