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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Synthesis, Crystal Chemistry, and Electrochemical Properties of Li(7-2x)La3Zr(2-x)Mo(x)O12 (x = 0.1-0.4): Stabilization of the Cubic Garnet Polymorph via Substitution of Zr(4+) by Mo(6+).


Cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) garnets are exceptionally well suited to be used as solid electrolytes or protecting layers in "Beyond Li-ion Battery" concepts. Unfortunately, cubic LLZO is not stable at room temperature (RT) and has to be stabilized by supervalent dopants. In this study we demonstrate a new possibility to stabilize the cubic phase at RT via substitution of Zr(4+) by Mo(6+). A Mo(6+) content of 0.25 per formula unit (pfu) stabilizes the cubic LLZO phase, and the solubility limit is about 0.3 Mo(6+) pfu. Based on the results of neutron powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, Mo(6+) is located at the octahedrally coordinated 16a site of the cubic garnet structure (space group Ia-3d). Since Mo(6+) has a smaller ionic radius compared to Zr(4+) the lattice parameter a0 decreases almost linearly as a function of the Mo(6+) content. The highest bulk Li-ion conductivity is found for the 0.25 pfu composition, with a typical RT value of 3.4 × 10(-4) S cm(-1). An additional significant resistive contribution originating from the sample interior (most probably from grain boundaries) could be identified in impedance spectra. The latter strongly depends on the prehistory and increases significantly after annealing at 700 °C in ambient air. Cyclic voltammetry experiments on cells containing Mo(6+) substituted LLZO indicate that the material is stable up to 6 V.

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