Research in the LMAS is concerned with the analysis and improvement of manufacturing processes and the development of tools to analyze sustainability. Research projects address: metrics and analytical tools for assessing the impact of processes including design for sustainability, systems and enterprises, modeling sustainable, environmentally-conscious manufacturing processes and systems, green supply chains, manufacturing technology for reduced impact, manufacturing technology for producing advanced energy sources or storage cleantech and sustainable products and systems. Specifically, research is focused on minimizing/removing contaminants and machining defects during manufacture, improving the precision and repeatability of chemical mechanical polishing, green machine tools and processes, sustainable packaging, and modeling sustainable, environmentally-conscious manufacturing processes and systems. The main lab groups within the LMAS are Precision Manufacturing, Green Engineering, and SMP (the Sustainable Manufacturing Partnership). An earlier research effort CODEF (Consortium on Deburring and Edge Finishing) has completed its work. Each of these groups conduct research with an eye to sustainability, and maintain a common goal of reducing waste (time, energy, materials).