The UC San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences is a research-intensive pharmacy school, advancing innovative pharmacy practice models and basic and translational pharmaceutical research.
Pathogenic microorganisms are sensed by the inflammasome, resulting in the release of the pro-immune and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In humans, the paired sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin receptors Siglec-5 (inhibitory) and Siglec-14 (activating) have been shown to have reciprocal roles in regulating macrophage immune responses, but their interaction with IL-1β signaling and the inflammasome has not been characterized. Here we show that in response to known inflammasome activators (ATP, nigericin) or the sialic acid-expressing human bacterial pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS), the presence of Siglec-14 enhances, whereas Siglec-5 reduces, inflammasome activation and macrophage IL-1β release. Human THP-1 macrophages stably transfected with Siglec-14 exhibited increased caspase-1 activation, IL-1β release and pyroptosis after GBS infection, in a manner blocked by a specific inhibitor of nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3), a protein involved in inflammasome assembly. Another leading pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, lacks sialic acid but rather prominently expresses a sialidase, which cleaves sialic acid from macrophages, eliminating cis- interactions with the lectin receptor, thus attenuating Siglec-14 induced IL-1β secretion. Vimentin, a cytoskeletal protein released during macrophage inflammatory activation is known to induce the inflammasome. We found that vimentin has increased interaction with Siglec-14 compared to Siglec-5, and this interaction heightened IL-1β production by Siglec-14-expressing cells. Siglec-14 is absent from some humans because of a SIGLEC5/14 fusion polymorphism, and we found increased IL-1β expression in primary macrophages from SIGLEC14+/+ individuals compared to those with the SIGLEC14-/+ and SIGLEC14-/- genotypes. Collectively, our results identify a new immunoregulatory role of Siglec-14 as a positive regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Generation of widely differing and specialized cell types from a single totipotent zygote involves large-scale transcriptional changes and chromatin reorganization. Pioneer transcription factors play key roles in programming the epigenome and facilitating recruitment of additional regulatory factors during successive cell lineage specification and differentiation steps. Here we show that Isl1 acts as a pioneer factor driving cardiomyocyte lineage commitment by shaping the chromatin landscape of cardiac progenitor cells. Using an Isl1 hypomorphic mouse line which shows congenital heart defects, genome-wide profiling of Isl1 binding together with RNA- and ATAC-sequencing of cardiac progenitor cells and their derivatives, we uncover a regulatory network downstream of Isl1 that orchestrates cardiogenesis. Mechanistically, we show that Isl1 binds to compacted chromatin and works in concert with the Brg1-Baf60c-based SWI/SNF complex to promote permissive cardiac lineage-specific alterations in the chromatin landscape not only of genes with critical functions in cardiac progenitor cells, but also of cardiomyocyte structural genes that are highly expressed when Isl1 itself is no longer present. Thus, the Isl1/Brg1-Baf60c complex plays a crucial role in orchestrating proper cardiogenesis and in establishing epigenetic memory of cardiomyocyte fate commitment.
Indexing the Pseudomonas specialized metabolome enabled the discovery of poaeamide B and the bananamides.
Pseudomonads are cosmopolitan microorganisms able to produce a wide array of specialized metabolites. These molecules allow Pseudomonas to scavenge nutrients, sense population density and enhance or inhibit growth of competing microorganisms. However, these valuable metabolites are typically characterized one-molecule-one-microbe at a time, instead of being inventoried in large numbers. To index and map the diversity of molecules detected from these organisms, 260 strains of ecologically diverse origins were subjected to mass-spectrometry-based molecular networking. Molecular networking not only enables dereplication of molecules, but also sheds light on their structural relationships. Moreover, it accelerates the discovery of new molecules. Here, by indexing the Pseudomonas specialized metabolome, we report the molecular-networking-based discovery of four molecules and their evolutionary relationships: a poaeamide analogue and a molecular subfamily of cyclic lipopeptides, bananamides 1, 2 and 3. Analysis of their biosynthetic gene cluster shows that it constitutes a distinct evolutionary branch of the Pseudomonas cyclic lipopeptides. Through analysis of an additional 370 extracts of wheat-associated Pseudomonas, we demonstrate how the detailed knowledge from our reference index can be efficiently propagated to annotate complex metabolomic data from other studies, akin to the way in which newly generated genomic information can be compared to data from public databases.